ARTLURKER

A Miami based contemporary art newsletter / blog

Art appreciation ‘a gender issue’

Cezanne’s Mont-Sainte Victoire as seen from Bibemus Quarry (1897).

According to an article published yesterday by the BBC, research presented by Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) shows that when it comes to appreciating art, men and women really do think differently.

Professor Francisco Ayala, from the University of California Irvine, and colleagues who asked ten men and ten women to judge the beauty of artist’s paintings and photographs of urban and rural landscapes stated: “While women use both sides of their brain, men only use the right half to judge if a piece of work is beautiful. This may reflect the different ways men and women’s minds have evolved – men tend to focus on the big picture while women take in “local” details too.”

In addition the researchers measured the magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in the twenty volunteers’ brains. Above all this revealed that “both men and women were using a part of the brain associated with spatial awareness, called the parietal lobe. However, while women used both right and left sides, men used only the right parietal lobe.”

Constable’s Old Sarum (1834).

The piece continues to say that “the researchers suggest that this is because women are contextualizing the information and thinking more about the details of what they are seeing, assessing the position of objects according broad categories, such as “above” or “below”, or “left” or “right”. The men, they say, are focusing on the overall image using a more precise form of mental mapping.”

We know for sure that there are differences between the male and female brain.” — Professor Friedermann Pulvermuller, an expert in brain studies at the MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit

Unsurprisingly, these differences are thought to have probably evolved millions of years ago when humans became hunter gatherers. Scientists quoted in the article stated to PNAS:

“Hunting, traditionally done by men, required a “coordinating” ability to track animals accurately while on the move. A “categorical” spatial awareness was better suited to foraging for fruit, roots or berries, a job mainly carried out by women. Women tend to be more aware than men of objects around them, including those that seem irrelevant to the current task, whereas men out-perform women in navigation tasks. Men tend to solve navigation tasks by using orientation-based strategies involving distance concepts and cardinal directions, whereas women tend to base their activities on remembering the location of landmarks and relative directions, such as ‘left from’, or ‘to the right of’.”

It seems that it was these differences in the ways in which our two genders ‘read’ the world that went on to influence our respective perceptions of beauty. Professor Friedermann Pulvermuller, an expert in brain studies at the MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit said: “This is an interesting study. We know for sure that there are differences between the male and female brain. The connections between the two hemispheres is better developed in females generally. So the findings are in agreement with what we know, but we would need more work before we could make any firm conclusions.”

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.For the source please visit: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/7905251.stm

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Next week, new variant ASPM – the supposed ‘intelligence gene,’ – is put to the test in deciphering the method behind The Times Online and the Saatchi Gallery’s definitive list of the top 200 twentieth century artists (arranged alphabetically below). Vote for your favorite and tell us why in the comments section!

Marina Abramovic
Tomma Abts
Vito Acconci
Ansel Adams
Bas Jan Ader
Eileen Agar
Craigie Aitchison
Josef Albers
Pierre Alechinsky
Kai Althoff
Francis Alys
Carl Andre
Karel Appel
Nobuyoshi Araki
Diane Arbus
Alexander Archipenko
Arman
Jean Arp
Art & Language
Antonin Artaud
Richard Artschwager
Eugene Atget
Frank Auerbach
Richard Avedon
Milton Avery
Gillian Ayres
Francis Bacon
Leon Bakst
John Baldessari
Miroslaw Balka
Giacomo Balla
Balthus
Ernst Barlach
Matthew Barney
Georg Baselitz
Jean-Michel Basquiat
Willi Baumeister
Lothar Baumgarten
Bernd And Hilla Becher
Max Beckmann
Hans Bellmer
George Wesley Bellows
Thomas Hart Benton
Joseph Beuys
Ashley Bickerton
Max Bill
Peter Blake
Umberto Boccioni
Alighiero E Boetti
Christian Boltanski
David Bomberg
Pierre Bonnard
Michael Borremans
Fernando Botero
Louise Bourgeois
Arthur Boyd
Constantin Brancusi
Bill Brandt
Georges Braque
Brassai (Gyula Halasz)
Victor Brauner
Marcel Broodthaers
Glenn Brown
Cecily Brown
Chris Burden
Daniel Buren
Victor Burgin
Edward Burra
Alberto Burri
Pol Bury
Jean-Marc Bustamante
Alexander Calder
Sophie Calle
Janet Cardiff & George Bures Miller
Anthony Caro
Carlo Carra
Henri Cartier-Bresson
Maurizio Cattelan
Patrick Caulfield
Cesar
Paul Cezanne
Helen Chadwick
Lynn Chadwick
Marc Chagall
John Chamberlain
Dinos and Jake Chapman
Judy Chicago
Eduardo Chillida
Giorgio De Chirico
Larry Clark
Christo And Jeanne Claude
Franceso Clemente
Chuck Close
Prunella Clough
Hannah Collins
George Condo
Le Corbusier
Lovis Corinth
Joseph Cornell
Tony Cragg
Martin Creed
Robert Crumb
John Currin
Salvador Dalí
Hanne Darboven
Stuart Davis
Willem De Kooning
Richard Deacon
Tacita Dean
Sonia Delaunay
Robert Delaunay
Paul Delvaux
Thomas Demand
Charles Demuth
Maurice Denis
Andre Derain
Jan Dibbets
Richard Diebenkorn
Jim Dine
Otto Dix
Theo Van Doesburg
Willie Doherty
Peter Doig
Oscar Dominguez
Kees Van Dongen
Arthur Dove
Jean Dubuffet
Marcel Duchamp
Raymond Duchamp-Villon
Raoul Dufy
Marlene Dumas
William Eggleston
Lissitzky EI
Olafur Eliasson
Tracey Emin
James Ensor
Jacob Epstein
Max Ernst
M.C. Escher
Richard Estes
Walker Evans
Luciano Fabro
Oyvind Fahlstrom
Jean Fautrier
Lyonel Feininger
Eric Fischl
Fischli & Weiss
Barry Flanagan
Dan Flavin
Lucio Fontana
Tsugouharu Foujita
Sam Francis
Robert Frank
Helen Frankenthaler
Lucian Freud
Lee Friedlander
Elisabeth Frink
Katharina Fritsch
Roger Fry
Naum Gabo
Antonio Lopez Garcia
Henri Gaudier-Brzeska
Paul Gauguin
Isa Genzken
Alberto Giacometti
Gilbert & George
Eric Gill
Albert Gliezes
Robert Gober
Nan Goldin
Andy Goldsworthy
Leon Golub
Natalia Goncharova
Julio Gonzalez
Felix Gonzalez-Torres
Douglas Gordon
Arshile Gorky
Anthony Gormley
Adolph Gottlieb
Dan Graham
Paul Graham
Duncan Grant
Juan Gris
George Grosz
Andreas Gursky
Philip Guston
Renato Guttuso
Hans Haacke
Peter Halley
Richard Hamilton
Ian Hamilton-Finlay
David Hammons
Duane Hanson
Keith Haring
Rachel Harrison
Marsden Hartley
Hans Hartung
Mona Hatoum
Raoul Hausmann
John Heartfield
Mary Heilman
Jean Helion
Barbara Hepworth
Patrick Heron
Eva Hesse
Gary Hill
Roger Hilton
Damien Hirst
Ivon Hitchens
David Hockney
Howard Hodgkin
Hans Hofmann
Carsten Holler
Jenny Holzer
Edward Hopper
Roni Horn
Rebecca Horn
Gary Hume
Jorg Immendorff
Robert Indiana
Robert Irwin
Alfred Jaar
Alexei Von Jawlensky
Augustus John
Gwen John
Jasper Johns
Joan Jonas
Allen Jones
Asger Jorn
Donald Judd
Isaac Julien
Ilya Kabakov
Frida Kahlo
Wassily Kandinsky
Anish Kapoor
Alex Katz
On Kawara
Mike Kelley
Ellsworth Kelly
Mary Kelly
William Kentridge
Anselm Kiefer
Ed and Nancy Kienholz
Martin Kippenberger
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Per Kirkeby
R.B. Kitaj
Paul Klee
Yves Klein
Gustav Klimt
Franz Kline
Oskar Kokoshka
Kathe Kollwitz
Komar And Melamid
Jeff Koons
Leon Kossoff
Joseph Kosuth
Jannis Kounellis
Lee Krasner
Barbara Kruger
Yayoi Kusama
Wolfgang Laib
Wilfredo Lam
Dorothea Lange
Jacques-Henri Lartigue
Marie Laurencin
Sol LeWitt
Fernand Leger
Percy Wyndham Lewis
Roy Lichtenstein
Max Liebermann
Jacques Lipchitz
Richard Long
Robert Longo
Morris Louis
L.S. Lowry
Sarah Lucas
August Macke
Rene Magritte
Aristide Maillol
Kasimir Malevich
Robert Mangold
Piero Manzoni
Giacumo Manzu
Robert Mapplethorpe
Franz Marc
Brice Marden
Walter De Maria
John Marin
Marisol
Kerry Marshall
Agnes Martin
Kenneth Martin
Andre Masson
Henri Matisse
Roberto Matta
Gordon Matta-Clark
Paul Mccarthy
Steve McQueen
Cildo Meireles
Ana Mendieta
Mario Merz
Annette Messager
Henri Michaux
Lee Miller
Joan Miro
Joan Mitchell
Paula Modersohn-Becker
Amedeo Modigliani
Tina Modotti
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy
Piet Mondrian
Claude Monet
Henry Moore
Giorgio Morandi
Yasumasa Morimura
Malcolm Morley
Robert Morris
Robert Motherwell
Ron Mueck
Matt Mullican
Edvard Munch
Juan Munoz
Takashi Murakami
Elie Nadelman
Paul Nash
David Nash
Bruce Nauman
Alice Neel
Mike Nelson
Louise Nevelson
Barnett Newman
Ben Nicholson
Hermann Nitsch
Noble and Webster
Isamu Noguchi
Sidney Nolan
Kenneth Noland
Emil Nolde
Maria Nordman
Georgia O’Keeffe
Albert Oehlen
Chris Ofili
Helio Oiticica
Claes Oldenburg
Jules Olitski
Yoko Ono
Julian Opie
Meret Oppenheim
Gabriel Orozco
Tony Oursler
Nam June Paik
Eduardo Paolozzi
Cornelia Parker
Martin Parr
Victor Pasmore
Max Pechstein
A.R. Penck
Giuseppe Penone
Roland Penrose
Beverly Pepper
Grayson Perry
Elizabeth Peyton
Niki de Saint Phalle
Vong Phaophanit
Francis Picabia
Pablo Picasso
Adrian Piper
John Piper
Michelangelo Pistoletto
Serge Poliakoff
Sigmar Polke
Jackson Pollock
Liubov Popova
Maurice Prendergast
Richard Prince
Marc Quinn
Arnulf Rainer
Neo Rauch
Robert Rauschenberg
Man Ray
Charles Ray
Odilon Redon
Paula Rego
Ad Reinhardt
Pierre Auguste Renoir
Jason Rhoades
Germaine Richier
Gerhard Richter
Daniel Richter
Leni Riefenstahl
Bridget Riley
Jean-Paul Riopelle
Pipilotti Rist
Diego Rivera
Larry Rivers
Norman Rockwell
Aleksandr Rodchenko
Auguste Rodin
James Rosenquist
Mimmo Rotella
Dieter Roth
Susan Rothenberg
Mark Rothko
Georges Rouault
Henri Rousseau
Ed Ruscha
Robert Ryman
Doris Salcedo
David Salle
Lucas Samaras
Cheri Samba
Fred Sandback
August Sander
Wilhelm Sasnal
Jenny Saville
Christian Schad
Miriam Schapiro
Egon Schiele
Oskar Schlemmer
Julian Schnabel
Gregor Schneider
Thomas Schutte
Kurt Schwitters
Sean Scully
George Segal
Kurt Seligmann
Richard Serra
Gino Severini
Ben Shahn
Charles Sheeler
Cindy Sherman
Stephen Shore
Walter Sickert
Santiago Sierra
Paul Signac
Roman Signer
David Smith
Kiki Smith
Robert Smithson
Pierre Soulages
Chaim Soutine
Stanley Spencer
Nancy Spero
Daniel Spoerri
Nicolas De Stael
Frank Stella
Joseph Stella
Jana Sterbak
Alfred Stieglitz
Clyfford Still
Thomas Struth
Hiroshi Sugimoto
Graham Sutherland
Rufino Tamayo
Yves Tanguy
Dorothea Tanning
Antoni Tapies
Vladimir Tatlin
Pavel Tchelitchew
Wayne Thiebaud
Wolfgang Tillmans
Jean Tinguely
Mark Tobey
Rosemarie Trockel
William Turnbull
James Turrell
Richard Tuttle
Luc Tuymans
Cy Twombly
Euan Uglow
Maurice Utrillo
Victor Vasarely
Ben Vautier
Jack Vettriano
Bill Viola
Banks Violette
Maurice De Vlaminck
Edouard Vuillard
Jeff Wall
Mark Wallinger
Alfred Wallis
Andy Warhol
Gillian Wearing
Max Weber
Weegee
William Wegman
Carel Weight
Lawrence Weiner
Franz West
Edward Weston
Rachel Whiteread
Hannah Wilke
Richard Wilson
Gary Winogrand
Wols
Grant Wood
Christopher Wool
Jack Butler Yeats
Gilberto Zorio

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6 Comments

  • WOWZERS

    This Article Explains Everything.
    “We know for sure that there are differences between the male and female brain.” — Professor Friedermann Pulvermuller, an expert in brain studies at the MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit

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Art appreciation ‘a gender issue’